React Hook - useState

從我研究React到現在,我認為React是基於state去決定UI該怎麼呈現。在2018年React提出了Hook,賦予了Function Component擁有了React State的概念。我以大家最常使用的Counter範例,來分享用法。一個Counter UI,它透過div顯示次數,透過點擊button去增加次數;在使用React Component的寫法時,程式碼如下,你必須透過this.state宣告member,而透過setState告知React狀態的改變:

import React, { Component } from "react"
 
class CounterComp extends Component {
    constructor(prop){
        super(prop);
        this.state = { count: 0 };
    }
 
    render(){
        const { count } = this.state;
        return (
            <>
                <div aria-label="counter-val">This is a example: {count}.</div>
                <button onClick={() => { this.setState({ count: count + 1 }); }}>count+1</button>
            </>    
        );
    }
}
 
export default CounterComp

只要你做了setState後,相關的元件就會做出對應的改變。接下來的文章將分享如何改成useState的形式與對應測試該怎麼寫。

首先看看程式碼量的差異:

import React, { useState } from "react"
 
function CounterFunc() {
    const [ count, setCount ] = useState(0);
 
    return (
        <>
            <div aria-label="counter-val">This is a example: {count}.</div>
            <button onClick={()=>setCount(count+1)}>count+1</button>
        </>
    )
}
 
export default CounterFunc

首先透過useState賦予count預設值,內容也可以是json;而setCount是用來修改count的狀態。接著在button中綁定一個函式,呼叫setCount並把新的值設定進去即可。是不是很簡單?

一開始我使用了enzyme去測試改完的程式碼:

it('Test click button of counterFunc', ()=>{
    const counterFunc = shallow(<CounterFunc/>);
    counterFunc.find('button').simulate('click');
    expect(counterFunc.find('div').text()).toBe('This is a example: 1.');
});

但我發現click並無法觸發狀態的改變。爬一下文,發現這目前是enzyme的問題link,也許以後某天會改。因此我改用react-testing-library做測試:

import CounterFunc from "../CounterFunc";
import {render, fireEvent, cleanup} from 'react-testing-library';
import React from 'react';
import renderer from 'react-test-renderer';
import {shallow} from 'enzyme';
 
 
describe('<CounterFunc>',()=>{
    afterEach(cleanup);
 
    it('CounterFunc snapshot', () => {
        const tree = renderer.create(<CounterFunc/>).toJSON()
        expect(tree).toMatchSnapshot();
    })
 
    // //Can't work with React-Hook
    // it('Test click button of counterFunc', ()=>{
    //     const counterFunc = shallow(<CounterFunc/>);
    //     counterFunc.find('button').simulate('click');
    //     expect(counterFunc.find('div').text()).toBe('This is a example: 1.');
    // });
 
    it('Test click button of counterFunc', ()=>{
        const utils = render(<CounterFunc/>);
        const display = utils.getByLabelText('counter-val');
        const button = utils.getByText('count+1');
 
        fireEvent.click(button);
        expect(display.textContent).toBe('This is a example: 1.');
    });
});